Monday, January 30, 2012

Where are the Posts?

Due to some health issues, being dizzy & disoriented among them, I have not been able to make any posts for several days.  I am hoping to be back at it in just a few more days.

Saturday, January 28, 2012

And the Winner is . . .

I would like to thank everyone who left a comment on the photo. Some of those comments had me laughing out loud! To select the winner, I assigned a number to each person who left a comment. (The first person was assigned #1, the second person was assigned #2, etc.) Then, I used a random number generator to select the number.

The winner is <drum roll, please>  TIPPER!   Congratulations!  
(Tipper, just send me an email with your mailing address)

I will have occasional contests in the future, so stayed tuned for your next chance to win!



The photo was taken by Rob Gibson at The Kemp's Ford Schoolhouse (ca. 1860) which was moved to Virginia's Explore Park from Franklin County, Virginia.  I have to admit that I cannot remember the year of the photo, but I believe it was in the late 1990s.  That is me on the far left.  The other folks were my co-workers:  Dave, Rick, Shannon, Bill, Eddie, Barbara, and Kris.  Rob Gibson used 19th century equipment and techniques for this photo.  The original of this photo is printed on a glass plate. Be sure to visit his website to learn more.

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

Did You Leave a Comment?

Don't forget, if you leave a comment on yesterday's post, you will be entered to win a hand knitted cowl made from wool yarn that I handspun!

Read yesterday's post for complete details and to enter!

Leave your comment before noon on Friday, January 27 to be eligible!

This is the cowl that is being given away.
You can see the nice burgundy color in this photo. 
Although the color is not accurate in this photo, you can see the pattern.  

Be sure to check back here on Saturday to find out who won! 
It could be you!

What Do You Think?

What do you think the caption of this photo should be?
(If you click on the photo, you can see a larger version.)

If you leave a comment below, you will be entered to win a cowl that I knitted from wool that I spun!
The winner will be chosen by a random number generator. 
The winner will be announced no later than January 28 and probably before!
Be sure to check back to see if you are the winner.

Tuesday, January 24, 2012

What Did I Spin Over the Weekend?

On Saturday, I stopped by a new store in Vinton called Wooly Belle*.  They had just gotten in some beautiful roving and top.  Here is what I purchased:

Wool Top by Wild Hare Fibers

Saturday night, I spun the top into this single ply yarn:

Single-ply yarn

After letting the single ply yarn rest overnight to help set the twist, I plied it together and produced this two-ply yarn:

4 ounces of the wool top produced approximately 192 yards of two-ply yarn

I am not sure what I am going to do with this yarn, but didn't it turn out nice!

*Wooly Belle is located at 128 N. Pollard Street, Vinton, VA.  Their hours are Mon-Sat 9-6 and Sun 12-5.    The owner of Wooly Belle had this to say about her shop:  "We have an eclectic group of vendors. We've researched and searched for the most unique items in the local area.  We try to keep new things in the store and provide a unique experience when you come in, every time! We never want it to be the same place twice."

"Like" Wooly Belle on facebook!
Check out Wooley Belle's blog!

Monday, January 23, 2012

St. Barbara's Day Results

You may remember reading a post on December 4 about the St. Barbara's Day tradition of cutting fruit tree limbs and bringing them indoors so that on Christmas Day they would bloom. (I did cut some cherry limbs and brought them into the house to see if they really would bloom by Christmas.)

Then, there was the post on December 27 showing the limbs.  Did they burst into bloom by Christmas?   No.

Well, then I thought that perhaps they would burst into bloom by Old Christmas, January 6.  Did they?  No.

Here it is January 23, 2012.  Have they bloomed yet?

At least it looks like there are finally some buds starting to form!

Friday, January 20, 2012

More Than Bedcovers

For as long as I can recall, I have always slept under quilts. Snuggling under a homemade quilt is one of the coziest feelings in the world.

One of my favorite memories is of the times that I spent the night at my Grandma and Grandpa's house in the wintertime. My bedroom was upstairs and it was always chilly in the dead of winter, even when the wood stove downstairs was going full blast. Grandma would pile so many quilts on me that I would sink into the feather bed and I could barely move! I had two favorite quilts when I was growing up--one was a Lone Star quilt and the other one had a couple of squares in it that were made of flannel.

My favorite childhood quilt
Much of this quilt is made from printed feed sacks.  
In 1983, I decided that I wanted Grandma to teach me to make a quilt  . . . and it had to be a Lone Star . . . and it had to be flannel.  If you have ever made quilts, you know that piecing together a Lone Star Quilt is not always the best quilt for a beginner. Flannel is also not as easy to work with as thinner cotton fabrics. I was stubborn back then too. Grandma made up a template and told me that we needed to make a mock-up out of cheap fabric first to make sure that she had made the template correctly. The template is just a simple diamond shape for this quilt, but the length of the sides and the distance across the middle has to be just so, or the center of the star will start to pucker up as you work farther out to the points. Our first sample failed, so it was back to the drawing board. Success! The second template worked!

Daddy gave me the money so that I could go to the local fabric store (by local, I mean 20 miles away) to buy the fabric.When I showed Grandma the fabric that I bought, she was very surprised by my color and fabric choices.   She said that she had never heard of someone using flannel to make a quilt. Keep in mind that my Grandma had never went out and specifically bought a big piece of fabric to take home and cut into tiny pieces only to turn around and sew them back together again to make a quilt. (Hmmm . . . when put that way, it does seem ridiculous!) She always had big bags in the walk-in closets full of fabric scraps, remnants from making all of my, my mom's and her own clothing. It was so much fun to go digging through those scrap bags! Grandma also used feed sacks to make her quilts. Animal feed used to come in printed cloth sacks, so when Grandpa was going to the store, she would show him the feed sacks that she had saved and tell him to try to get the same pattern.  I can just imagine Grandpa requesting chicken feed in the "red sack with the tiny blue flowers and little white squiggles!" What a great way for the feed companies to keep their customers loyal!  The red printed sections in the above quilt were made from printed feed sacks.

Grandma helped me get the center of the star started and then I hand-pieced the rest of the star. When it was time to cut the pieces of fabric to set around the star, Grandma did that part because there was no way that I had enough quilting experience to figure that out! Keep in mind that we were not following any store bought pattern for this quilt. We were doing as women had done for many, many years. We were figuring it out as we went along.

Since Grandma had given her large quilting frame away years before, we had to borrow a set of quilting frames from our neighbor, Ruby.  Grandma had started doing most of her quilting using a large hoop since the big frames would take up the better part of a room. Naturally, I wanted to do it the traditional way on a large frame! Once we got the quilt top, batting, and backing in the frame, it was finally time to quilt. (Quilting is sewing the three layers together using thousands of tiny, hand-sewn stitches.) Grandma, her sister Delpha and I quilted the whole thing by hand.

This is a hanging quilt frame

After we got the quilt finished, I embroidered a rose with our initials and the date on the back so that I would always remember when I made the quilt. If you notice, just under the rose, I embroidered the name "Ellie".  She was my much loved kitty that died while we were making the quilt.

Here is how it turned out:

"Lone Star"--the first quilt that I made

Thursday, January 19, 2012

Mystery Item Answer

Are you ready for this? They are POT SCRUBBERS! Remember that most cooking used to be done in heavy cast iron pots and pans. These hickory scrubbers will work miracles on burned on food. (However, I do not think that you would want to use this on your modern non-stick pans!)

To make these scrubbers, you take a thick hickory stick and use a draw knife to carefully shave pieces almost to the end, but leave them connected about 1/2" from the end.  Then, after you have shaved enough to make the brushy part, bend them downward and either use a piece of leather or another piece of thinly shaved hickory to tie the shaved pieces to keep them in place.  When it is time to do dishes, simply wet the scrubber and the hickory shavings become flexible and make an excellent pot scrubber.

Folks used to also make broom-sized scrubbers like these to scrub wood floors.

If you look carefully, you can see how the piece of hickory is shaved to make the brushy part
The larger one is the actual pot scrubber.
The two smaller ones are more like toys than anything,
but they would also make good small scrubbers.

Now you know!   :D
Thanks to Becky, Rae, Leslie & Meg for posting your guesses!

Tuesday, January 17, 2012

Mystery Item

What is it and how was it made and/or used?

Post your guess in the comment section below.

The answer will be posted on Thursday morning.

I included a yard stick in the photo for scale

Close up view of the large item

Monday, January 16, 2012

Home Alone on a Holiday

Remember how much fun it used to be when you would have that extra day to stay home from school because of a holiday? You could sleep in, watch TV, eat junk food, play and basically do nothing productive all day. I decided this morning that I was going to ignore any chores or errands that really needed to be done. I was going to enjoy my day like I did not have any responsibilities.

Here is how I spent my day:
1. Slept in until 7:00am (I usually get up around 5:15am)
2. Fresh baked cinnamon rolls for breakfast
3. Played on facebook and Pinterest
4. Cuddled a sweet doggy and two kitties
5. Showered
6. Knitted in front of the fireplace

A cowl that I just started knitting last night

7. Read a murder mystery while enjoying leftovers for lunch
8. More knitting
9. Coloring!  Remember how much fun it used to be to color?  Each fall when it was time to start back to school, mom would always buy me the 64 pack of Crayola crayons.  I was so careful with them!  I would always make sure that I put each crayon back exactly where it came from in the box.  I would stick a pencil into the crayon's spot so that I was sure to get it back exactly right. I would not share my crayons with others because I was afraid that they would not put them back at the correct spot or that they would (horrors!) BREAK one.I guess I was an uptight child! This past week, one of my friends had posted on facebook about how much fun she was having coloring mandalas. So, I decided that today was a fabulous day to color, so I printed out some pictures to color from the Internet.  

First, I had to find my colored pencils:

Then I spent an enjoyable hour coloring this picture:

10. Then I decided that I would work on some blog posts, but my both of my netbook computers were running slower than molasses.  Finally, the speed mysteriously got faster and I was able to work on this post.
11. Afternoon nap in front of the fireplace.
12. I did do one other responsible thing today.  I put a roast into the slow cooker with some veggies for supper.  

How did you spend your holiday?

Sunday, January 15, 2012

Folk Speech

gallowses--another word for suspenders.   "If you can't keep your pants up, maybe you need a pair of gallowses."  My grandparents used this word quite a bit.

gaumed up--to make a mess.  "She obviously does not know how to sew.  I have never seen such a gaumed up dress in my life."

gettin' above yer raisin'--acting stuck up or like you are rich and famous when you are not. "Just look at Suzie with that fancy hairdo and all of that jewelry.  If you ask me that girl is gettin above her raisin'!"

plumb--completely or all out.  "I scared Grandma plumb to death when I jumped from behind the door!"

got a face that would stop an 8 day clock--very ugly.  "That girl's face could stop an 8 day clock!"

gum'd it--chew it.  "Granny had to gum that chicken since she ain't got no teeth!"

gussied--getting dressed up nicely.   "What are you gettin' all gussied up for?  Are you going to a party?"

foller yer own lights--do what you know is right.  "You better stop doing what all of your friends are doing and foller yer own lights!"

fit as a fiddle--fine.  "I think I will go climb that mountain today because I am feelin' just as fit as a fiddle!"

farn--foreign or unusual.  "That dragonfruit is farn to this country. I'm not sure where it comes from."

Friday, January 13, 2012

Portobello Mushroom Pizza

I usually try to stick to more traditional recipes and information on this blog, but I just had to share this with you.  It is tasty with a capital "T" and healthy too!

Portobello Mushroom Pizza

1 portobello mushroom cap with the stem removed
oil spray
pizza sauce
mozzarella cheese
your favorite pizza toppings

Spray both sides of mushroom with oil and place on a foil-lined baking sheet. Bake for 30 minutes at 400F or until tender, turning once.

Remove from oven and top the concave side of the mushroom with the pizza sauce and cheese. Add your favorite toppings. I used thinly sliced onion, fresh slices of jalapeno, and turkey pepperoni. Put under broiler for about a minute or until the cheese is nice and bubbly.

This was SO good! I didn't miss not having a real pizza crust in this recipe. Now, I am planning other tasty toppings like crumbled bacon, Canadian bacon, olives, etc. After I finished eating it, I wished that I had made two!

Thursday, January 12, 2012

Roasted Onions

Roasted Onions

These should be cooked in their skins; but before putting them into the oven, brush off all grittiness. Place in a moderate oven, cooking gradually until nearly done, then quicken the oven and brown.  Serve with plenty of fresh butter.
--from Godey's Lady's Book Receipts and Household Hints by Sarah Annie Frost, Evans, Stoddart & Co, 1870, p. 173.  (For more great 19th century recipes, check out the rest of this book on Google Books.)

(I have made this before and it is yummy! I cooked them in a 350F oven until they were fork-tender. Then, I turned the broiler on to brown them.  Watch it very carefully so you don't burn your tasty onions! I also seasoned them with salt and pepper to taste.)

Wednesday, January 11, 2012

Mystery Item Revealed

I had a difficult time attempting to take a photo of yesterday's mystery item in use. First, I realized that all of my modern tables were too thick to clamp the PINCUSHION on the edge.  After walking all over the house, I finally found that the small table in our breakfast nook was thin enough.   Then, I just could not seem to get enough light for the photo, so I hope that you get the general idea of how this works.

In a time when everything was handsewn, this 19th century pincushion could be clamped on a table so that ladies could easily locate their pins.

The first person to guess the answer was Dave S.
Meg C. was also correct.

Thanks to everyone for playing Mystery Item!

Tuesday, January 10, 2012

Mystery Item

What is it and how is it used?  

Make your guess and leave it in the comment section below.

The answer will be posted tomorrow.

Monday, January 9, 2012

Weaving on a Mini Loom

I went to the Southeastern Animal Fiber Fair back in October and bought quite a bit of fiber and fiber-related items.  One of my purchases was a Spriggs Mini-Mod Looms: Triangle & Square Loom Set from Carol Leigh's Hillcreek Fiber Studio. 

As with most things, daily life can often get in the way of fiber fun, so I only took the looms out of the box the week after Christmas. One of the things that makes these looms so great to weave on is that you can do "continuous strand weaving". This means that you are able to warp the loom and start weaving at the same time and you are only using one strand of yarn for the whole piece!

When I first started trying to understand the directions, they didn't really make sense to me.  I am much better at understand how things are done when someone can actually SHOW me how to do it.  Reading how and then doing just does not always work out for me.  Happily, I didn't give up and just all of a sudden, it started making sense.  

Spriggs Mini-Mod Looms

I decided to figure out how to weave on the square loom first.
Note the optional hook/needle to the side.
I consider the hook a must for fast, efficient weaving.

I started weaving with some of my wool handspun.
(Roving from Wild Hare Fiber Studio
The color is "Bermuda")

Here are the first four squares that I made on the loom.
Each  five-inch square only takes 35-40 minutes.

The next step is to wash the squares to finish the fabric.  Then, they are ready to be sewn together however, I am not sure what I am going to make with these squares. This was just some yarn that I had left over from a scarf that I knitted.  I only have enough yarn to make maybe one more square. 

Scarf that I knitted from the same yarn in February 2010.

Carol Leigh also sells 7 foot adjustable tri-looms, 2 & 3 foot travel tri-looms, 7 foot adjustable rectangle looms, 5 ft square looms and several others.  Be sure to check out her website

Sunday, January 8, 2012

January "Spring" Cleaning

My husband and I have been doing some MAJOR housecleaning. Not just simple cleaning. Going through every closet.  Going through every cabinet. Going through EVERYTHING. I have been vicious about getting rid of things that I know that I no longer have a use for. We have donated what we can to Goodwill and the library. Yes. I even got rid of over one hundred books.  No fears though. I still have hundreds left!

My animal companions have not been happy about this whole process. Vacuum monsters running all over the house. Wet spongy things soaking the floors. White gooey stuff on the walls that stick to their fur. Things being moved.  Chaos in the eyes of my animal friends.

Ike takes a close look at the new living room rug. 

He decides that it is quite comfortable.

Meanwhile, Ozzy just wants to play with his squeaky frisbee!

Mysterious orbs appeared in this photo.

Phantom has remained unconcerned about all of the goings-on. 

Of course I have not even touched my computer/craft/music room.  It was already a disaster zone, but it is a total nightmare now because as I have found items that should have been there in the first place, I have just pitched them through the door.

There is always next weekend!

Saturday, January 7, 2012

St. Distaff's Day

My spinning wheel with the distaff attached

1.  a staff for holding the flax, tow, or wool in spinning
2.  woman's work or domain
3.  the female branch or side of a family

The days between Christmas (December 25) and Epiphany (January 6) were considered a time of rest from all but the most necessary labors. St. Distaff's Day (January 7) is when all good housewives resumed their normal chores, including spinning. This day is also known as Roc or Rock Day. ("Rock" is another name for a distaff.)  

Menfolk did not return to their work until the Monday following Twelfth Night. (So depending on what day of the week Twelfth Night fell on, they might get almost a week longer than the woman. Hmph!) The men would use all of that time off from work to harass the woman and play pranks on the busy spinners. One of the pranks involved setting fire to the flax and tow which awaited the spinner's hand. In turn, the spinners would keep buckets of water on hand to douse the burning spinning materials AND the pranksters.

The stick looking thing is the distaff.  Flax fiber is attached to the
distaff so that it is held straight and untangled while spinning.
There are many different types of distaffs.  Some look similar
to a bird cage.

St. Distaff's day, or the morrow after Twelfth-Day 
(from Hesperides by Rober Herrick)

Partly work, and partly play,
Ye must on St. Distaff's Day:
From the plough soone free your teame,
Then came home and fother them.
If the maides a spinning goe,
Burn the flax, and fire the tow;

Bring in pailes of water then,
Let the maides bewash the men.
Give St. Distaffe all the right,
Then bid Christmas sport good-night.
And next morrow, every one
To his owne vocation.

A photo of Queen Victoria spinning flax.
(The original photo is at
The Leeds City Art Galleries)

Needless to say, I better not catch Steve trying to set fire to my flax!   :D

You may have a better understanding of why I named my blog "The Wheel and Distaff" after reading this post.

Thursday, January 5, 2012

Happy Old Christmas!

The period between Christmas (December 25) and Epiphany (January 6) represents the Twelve Days of Christmas. Historically, there are many superstitions and traditions associated with this time. The spirit world was supposed to be particularly active during this dark and cold time of year, so there were many ways to ward them off.

People believed that ancestral ghosts would pay a visit during this time. When they visited, they might cause mischief around the house, so you wanted to be sure and clean and straighten the house so that the spirits would have little to tinker with.  Anything that runs round should never be set in motion during this time.  No threshing should be done during the Twelve Days.

The period was also a time when all work, except for the most necessary, was put aside and it was a time of feasting and fun.  Women would put aside their spinning, because if any flax were to be left on the distaff, the devil might come and cut it.  In some European countries, there was a spirit who would visit at this time and she was said to punish girls who left their flax unspun on the distaff.

January 6 is Epiphany.  The eve of Epiphany, is believed to be the night, over 2000 years ago, when the Three Wise Men came to Bethlehem to honor the Christ child.  One old belief associated with Old Christmas Day is that you should never lend anything because you will never get it back. This is also the night when people believed that flowers would bloom, bees would hum Christmas songs, and animals would kneel and pray at midnight. I don't think that any of that happened here last night, but then again, I was snuggled up under a pile of quilts, sound asleep!

In the mountains, there is an old tradition called "Breaking Up Christmas."  Since the time between Christmas and Epiphany was a time of visiting, feasting, and dancing, it all had to come to an end eventually, so they would have "Breaking up Christmas parties.   There is a great traditional tune called "Breaking Up Christmas".  

I love the idea of celebrating for twelve days, so I always leave my holiday decorations up until after Old Christmas Day.


Wednesday, January 4, 2012

Mystery Item Answer

. . . .And the answer is . . . .. A whirly-gig or propeller toy.  To see this toy in action watch the following video.

On the twelfth day of Christmas my true love gave to me, twelve drummers drumming, eleven pipers piping, ten lords a-leapin', nine ladies dancing, eight maids a-milkin', seven swans a-swimmin', six geese a-layin', five golden rings, four colly birds, three French hens, two turtle doves, and a partridge in a pear tree.

Tuesday, January 3, 2012

Mystery Item

What is this item and how is it used?  
Leave your guess in the comment section below.

On the eleventh day of Christmas my true love gave to me, eleven pipers piping, ten lords a-leapin, nine ladies dancing, eight maids a-milkin', seven swans a-swimmin', six geese a-layin', five golden rings, four colly birds, three French hens, two turtle doves, and a partridge in a pear tree.

Pound Cake--19th Century Style

See if you can guess how this cake got its name!  Most 19th century recipes for pound cake are very similar to the one below. This one came from Tyree, Marion Cabell. Housekeeping in Old Virginia. Louisville, KY: John P. Morton and Company, 1879.  In a time when eggs could be traded for other goods, using a dozen to make a cake for just the immediate family was quite a luxury. Butter was also used as a trade item so using eggs and butter was almost like eating your paycheck! Using sugar instead of a home grown sweetener, like honey or molasses, was also quite a treat.

Pound Cake

1 pound sugar
1 pound butter
1 pound of flour
12 eggs

Cream the butter; rub into it gradually the sifted and dried flour. Beat the yolks of ten eggs very light, then add the powdered sugar, beat again, add a wine-glass of brandy or one of good whiskey flavored with nutmeg, or the grated rind of a lemon; mix all together.  Stir in the whites of twelve eggs beaten to a stiff froth, just before baking.  It will take two hours to bake.

On the tenth day of Christmas my true love gave to me, ten lords a-leapin', nine ladies dancing, eight maids a-milkin', seven swans a-swimmin', six geese a-layin, five golden rings, four colly birds, three French hens, two turtle doves, and a partridge in a pear tree.

Monday, January 2, 2012

Home Questions for the New Year

The following is from the 1849 edition of Old Farmers Almanack, Jenks, Palmer & Company, Boston.

 I wanted to post a photo of the cover of this almanac, but the cover is missing.   (This book is in my personal library.)

Even though this was written 163 years ago, these are still some very relevant questions! (This was originally written in one big paragraph, but to make it easier to read, I have added some spacing.)

Home Questions for the New Year

What do you intend shall be the great ruling principle of your life this year? Have you learned to respect yourself too much to be rough or uncivil to those when Providence has placed around or beneath you in life?  Did you ever reflect, that one quarter of an hour per day misspent would amount to over nine days, of ten hours each, wasted, in a year? How much we all might accomplish, if we would put there quarters of hours to a good use!

Did you ever know cattle to leap fences to get into a poorer pasture? Are you aware that in laying in winter fodder for your stock, too much is just the right quantity?  Do you know three better or cheaper physicians than Water, Exercise and Temperance?  You may call freely upon these, and we will guarantee that if ever they send in their bills, it will be with the refreshing words, "received payment," at the bottom! Have you learned not to grumble about the weather?

Which is the rich man, he with large means and small soul, or he with a large soul and small means? Don't you know you should estimate your duty rather by your ability than your inclinations? Do you try to deserve prosperity by imparting of your abundance to those less blessed than yourself? Do you keep an iron brand to mark your tools with? Are you insured and is the policy all straight?

How many trees shall you plant before this time next year? Do you sign your name plainly? Did you ever know a man who did not "lose his luck," if he fished, gunned, gadded, or loafed, instead of attending promptly to his business? Are your children punctual at school? Do you look in, now and then, upon the school master, or mistress, to encourage them, and see that all is going on rightly? I suppose you know that horses and oxen thrive better on hay and grain than on whipcord?

Have not you noticed that hundreds acquire competency by industry, integrity, and economy, where one does by a "lucky chance?" Are your buildings protected from lightning, and properly ventilated? Have you set out any grape vines near your premises? Do you cherish a social, cheerful, thankful spirit? Do you provide good tools for your workmen, and see them properly taken care of? Have you made your will?


On the ninth day of Christmas my true love gave to me, nine ladies dancing, eight maids a-milkin', seven swans a-swimming, six geese a-layin, five golden rings, four colly birds, three French hens, two turtle doves, and a partridge in a pear tree.

Sunday, January 1, 2012

Happy New Year!

I hope that everyone had a nice New Year's Eve. As I was furiously cleaning and organizing the house yesterday, I was thinking about what I would like my post to be about today. Nothing really came to mind. When I was growing up, New Year's Eve and Day were no big deal in our family.  We didn't stay up until midnight to ring in the new year. We did not eat anything special on New Year's Day. Of course, I would not have touched greens or black-eyed peas with a ten foot pole back then!  Actually, I still would not touch the peas!  We also did not make New Year's resolutions.

I thought about doing some research and writing about the origins of our New Year's traditions.  As you can see, that did not happen either.  

In any case, I hope that 2012 is filled with good things for you.  Happy New Year!

On the eighth day of Christmas my true love gave to me, eight maids a-milkin, seven swans a-swimming, six geese a-layin', five golden rings, four colly birds, three French hens, two turtle doves, and a partridge in a pear tree.